Introduction to Database Applications

Nidhi Raniyer
2 min readJan 11, 2022


Quick notes: History and Use of DBMS

A Brief History of Database Technology

Early database applications

  • 1960s — Hierarchical and network models were introduced.
  • A bulk of world wide database still occurs using these models.

Relational Model Based Systems

  • introduced in 1970
  • Heavily researched and experimented within IBM research and several university.
  • Relational database management system products emerged in 1980s.

Object Oriented and Emerging Applications

  • OODBMS or Object oriented database management system were introduced in 1980s-1990s to cater to the needs of complex data processing in CAD and other applications.
  • Incorporated object database concepts lead to ORDBMS
  • Extended relational system added further capabilities.

Data on the Web and Ecommerce Applications

  • Data on websites are stored and processed using DBMS.
  • Web contains data in html with link among pages.
  • E-commerce using new standard like XML was born.
  • Script programming language such as PHP and JavaScript allow generation of dynamic web pages that are partially generated from database.

When Not to Use Database Management Systems

Main inhibitors (cost) of using a DBMS

  • High initial investment
  • Possible need of additional hardware
  • Overhead for providing generality, security, concurrency control, recovery and integrity functions.

When it is unnecessary

  • When database and applications are simple, well defined and not accepted to change.
  • if access to data by multiple users is not required.

When it is not feasible

  • When general purpose Database Management System will not fit in available storage for embedded systems.

When no DBMS may suffice

  • If there are stringent real time requirements that may not be met by DBMS overhead.
  • If database system is not able to handle the complexity of data because of modeling limitations.
  • If database users need special operations not supported by DBMS